Background InformationCapital: Vilnius
Offical language: Lithuanian
Area: 65,000 km2
Population (2006): 3,403,000
Population density: 53 inhabitants per km2
Population growth (1997-2004): -3.96%
Labour force participation rate: 69.1% (Eurostat)
Foreign population as a percentage of total (2006): 1.04% (35,300 persons)
Unemployment rate: 8.3% (2005); 11.4% (2004); 12.4% (2003)
Religions (2001): 30 religions represented in the census; 79% Catholics, 4% Russian Orthodox, 0.8% Protestant Ethnic groups (2001): Lithuanian (83.5%), Polish (6.7%), Russian (6.3%), Belarusian (1.2%)
Lithuania, the biggest of the three Baltic States, borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and Poland and the Russian oblast Kaliningrad to the south. It therefore lies on the eastern border of the EU, to which it was admitted in 2004.
Until it achieved independence in 1990, the country had last existed as a state between 1918 and 1940. Like the two other Baltic republics, it suffered for a long time as a result of its particular geographical position, which brought it under the alternating spheres of influence and interest of Germany and the Soviet Union. In the course of successive occupations, first by Soviet and then by German troops, as well as after the territory was annexed by the USSR in 1940, there were mass expulsions and deportations of parts of the resident population. This affected in particular the educated elite and members of ethnic minorities. The end of the Second World War was marked by the expulsion of Baltic Germans and the resettlement in Lithuanian territory of ethnic groups from the Soviet Union.
After 1991 new migration patterns arose. Exiled Lithuanians returned and resettled ethnic groups began to depart. On the other hand, since the state opened up towards the West, there has also been an increase in labour emigration, which has been expressed in consistently negative net migration levels.
Since 2004, Lithuania’s eastern border has also been the external border of the EU, and Lithuania has been trying to overcome the difficulties arising from its role as a destination, source and, above all, transit country for legal and irregular international migration.
History of Migration since the Second World War
Between 1940 and 1958, Lithuania experienced a loss in population due to deportations, acts of war and the Holocaust. Nearly the entire Jewish population of the country was exterminated. In total, the country lost an estimated 1 million people during this time.
During the post-war period ethnic Russians and population groups from other regions of the Soviet Union (mainly from the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus) were systematically resettled in the Baltic States. This was done in order to tie the previously independent republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania more closely to the central power in Moscow and thus prevent the manifestation of a desire for independence. Increased industrialisation brought about a further influx of labourers from the Soviet Union. In 1989, approximately 10% of the country’s population was foreign-born.
Despite the immigration of a wave of exiled Lithuanians, the Baltic state has been experiencing a significant decline in population since the restoration of independence in 1990. Both natural population development and the migration balance have been negative since the beginning of the 1990s. Accountable are the period of drastic economic change from the earlier, planned economy to the current free-market economy, as well as the newly-won freedom to travel. In the first years after 1990, members of ethnic minorities in particular emigrated primarily to Russia and Ukraine. Since the second half of the 1990s, emigration to Western Europe and North America has been predominant. Since Lithuania’s admission to the European Union in May 2004, and subsequent freedom of movement as workers to the United Kingdom, Ireland and Sweden, the number of Lithuanians working or studying abroad has increased further.
Due to immigration from the territories of the Soviet Union, Lithuania experienced a positive net migration of 6,000 to 8,000 persons per year until the end of the 1980s.
Net migration has been consistently negative since the regaining of independence in 1990 (see Figure 1). In conjunction with the declining birth rate, this intensifies the country’s overall demographic problem. Since 1989, the total population has shrunk by 5.8% (300,000 persons) to the current population of 3.4 million. The number of people emigrating from the country is also likely to be considerably underestimated.1
The reasons for which Lithuanians migrate are primarily of an economic nature: the prospect of finding a better job or a higher income abroad figure highly. According to official statistics, 61,800 Lithuanians left the country between 2001 and 2005, with 83.1% of that number leaving for employment reasons. Moreover, 37.2% of migrants above the age of 15 stated that they had been unemployed before leaving the country. In this period, Ireland, the United Kingdom, the USA, Spain and Germany were the main western destination countries for emigration. To date, however, the migration behaviour of ethnic minorities has differed significantly from that of ethnic Lithuanians; thus Russia, Ukraine and Belarus continue to be destination countries for Lithuanian emigration.
In the period between 2001 and 2005, 63.8% of migrants aged 15 years and above had secondary school qualifications, while a further 20.9% had a university degree. The phenomenon of highly-qualified people emigrating, commonly referred to as “brain drain”, is not a major concern among the governing bodies in Lithuania; indeed, the Department of Migration2 points to returnees using the knowledge gained abroad in their native country. This assumption coincides with a study3 carried out among university students in 2005 in cooperation with Vilnius University. Students were asked, among other things, whether they were planning a stay abroad, and if so, for how long. Of 169 students, just 5.9% replied that they would want to turn their backs on Lithuania permanently. A significant majority of about 92% could only imagine a temporary stay abroad.
These attitudes toward emigration also seem to be reflected in the general population. According to a study carried out by Lithuania’s market and opinion research centre, 73% of those surveyed stated they had no intention of emigrating. Only 1.3% felt that permanent emigration was worth considering.4
Lithuanians make considerable use of the opportunities that the free movement of workers gives to EU citizens. As only the United Kingdom, Sweden and Ireland5 opened their employment markets fully in the first phase of the transitional arrangements (May 2004 to May 2006), labour migration within this legal framework was concentrated primarily to these three countries. In the United Kingdom, Lithuanians made up about 15% of workers from the EU86 in the year 2005. Here they pursue low-skilled occupations as harvest helpers, bricklayers and temporary staff. In Ireland they make up a significantly higher proportion at 21%. Although there, too, they are mostly found in relatively simple forms of occupation, the numbers employed in the health service (as nurses and doctors) are rising.
Resident Immigrant and Foreign Population
According to the latest census, in the year 2001 5.9% of the population of Lithuania was born outside the country and were therefore first generation immigrants. The most strongly represented countries of origin were the Russian Federation (47%), Belarus (28%) and Ukraine (10%), followed by Latvia (4%), Kazakhstan (3%), Poland (2%), Germany (0.7%) and the USA (0.5%). This indicates that the patterns of migration from the times of the Soviet Union, whereby most immigrants originated from the territories of the USSR, have remained consistent.
Since 1999, the great majority of permanent and temporary residence permits have been granted for the purpose of reuniting families. According to the Department of Migration, 40% of permits issues in 2004 were for family reunification, compared with 15% for employment and 14% for educational purposes.
At the beginning of 2006 there were about 35,300 foreign citizens registered temporarily (7,100) or permanently (28,200) in Lithuania. That makes up just 1% of the 3.4 million inhabitants. This, then, is substantially different from Estonia and Latvia, where a considerable proportion of the non-Baltic population is foreign or stateless. The small percentage in Lithuania is mostly explained by the extremely generous naturalisation procedures at the beginning of the 1990s and the comparatively low immigration since the 1990s.
With regard to the distribution of the resident foreign population, there is a clearly discernible difference between town and country. The resident foreign population is mostly concentrated in the capital city of Vilnius and, to a considerably lesser extent, in the former capital of Kaunas and the Baltic port of Klaipeda.
Citizenship and Naturalisation
With the passing of the 1989 Law on Citizenship, almost the entire resident population of Lithuania legally registered on Lithuanian territory by the 3rd February 1989 was offered Lithuanian citizenship (known as the “Zero Option”). The only exceptions were former members of the Russian armed forces and secret services along with their families. Otherwise, Lithuanian citizenship was granted upon application irrespective of ethnic origin, duration of stay, or proven command of the language. According to the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), from 1989 until the introduction of a more restrictive Law on Citizenship in 1991 the majority of inhabitants availed themselves of this opportunity and accepted Lithuanian citizenship. In 2001, 99% of all inhabitants were Lithuanian citizens.
According to the current Law on Citizenship, which came into force in 2003, a person can become naturalised if they have been living in Lithuania for at least 10 years, possess an unlimited residence permit, have passed an official language test, have passed an examination on the basic provisions of the Constitution, have taken the oath of allegiance to the Republic of Lithuania and are able to defray their own living costs. Dual citizenship is only possible in exceptional and justified cases, and in general those seeking naturalisation have to opt for one citizenship or the other.
Statistics published by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) show that there were about 8,700 stateless persons staying on Lithuanian territory in 2005, representing less than 1% of the country’s population. According to the Department of Migration, most of them (7,500) possessed a permanent residence permit. Between the years 2001 and 2004, a total of 1,300 formerly stateless persons were naturalised. The group of stateless persons is therefore significantly smaller than those in the two other Baltic States (Estonia 136,000 stateless persons; Latvia 418,600).
Legal Measures relating to Immigration and Residence
Legislation concerning immigration and residence can be subdivided into a restrictive and a liberal phase. After regaining independence in the year 1990, a restrictive immigration policy, in particular with regard to citizens of the former Soviet Union, was designed to consolidate independence. To prevent an uncontrolled influx from the territories of the former USSR, the first Law on the Legal Status of Aliens was passed in March 1991. Among other things, the law made visas obligatory for citizens of neighbouring states to the east.7 The second phase of Lithuanian immigration policy is characterised by the desire to accede to the European Union and the associated conditions of bringing national law in line with the acquis communautaire.8 To this end the legislation was further adapted in December 1998 and lastly in April 2004 by the Law on the Legal Status of Aliens. As a result, for example, EU citizens now have the right to reside and work in Lithuania. For stays lasting longer than three months they must obtain a residence permit, which simultaneously serves as a work permit, from the Department of Migration in Vilnius. By contrast, non-EU citizens must generally apply for an entry permit from a Lithuanian embassy. After entering the country it is possible to submit an application for a residence permit at the Department of Migration.
Flight and Asylum
Only in recent years has Lithuania become a receiving country for refugees and asylum seekers. In 1997, the country ratified the 1951 Geneva Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. These agreements, together with the Law on Refugees of the Republic of Lithuania passed in the year 2000, formed the legal framework within which it was possible to develop a uniform Lithuanian asylum policy. The 2004 Law on the Legal Status of Aliens changed the asylum application process, adapting national legislation to the EU acquis communautaire.
According to the Department of Migration, compared with other Baltic States, Lithuania has the highest number of asylum seekers. However, in comparison with Europe as a whole the number is small.
An asylum seeker must have arrived in Lithuania by crossing the border in the normal manner, or have presented themselves to the local authorities or the police within 48 hours of their entry. In practice, however, this can hardly be proved and so all applications are accepted in the first instance. This means that an application for asylum can be made both at a border crossing and at a police station. During the decision process, asylum seekers are accommodated in the Foreigners Registration Centre in Pabrade.
In the year 2005 there were a total of 410 applications for asylum. In the same year, 15 applications for asylum were granted on the basis of the Geneva onvention. A further 328 applicants were granted subsidiary protection due to the impossibility of repatriation on account of acts of war, humanitarian crises, illness or other humanitarian reasons. In both categories, citizens of the Russian Federation represented the clear majority, followed by persons of Afghan nationality.
If the decision is affirmative, the persons concerned are taken to the Refugees’ Reception Centre in Rukla. There a stay of six months is permitted which may be extended under certain conditions. Since 2005, initial integration measures have been offered at the reception centre. These include intensive language courses, professional training programmes and advice on how to enter the job market.
After staying at the reception centre, refugees and persons who have been granted subsidiary protection are given accommodation by local authorities. Further state aid is offered to assist integration. The twelve-month9 programme comprises a monthly allowance, language tuition, social security, health insurance and assistance in seeking employment. According to the Department of Migration, Lithuania received approximately EUR 570,000 in 2005 from the European Refugee Fund for the integration of refugees. These funds were used to finance social integration projects including a day centre for refugees in Kaunas. Among other things, the centre offers advisory services and activities for young people and women. The provision of advice to refugees in Vilnius, Jonava and Klaipeda has also been improved.
The living conditions for asylum seekers in the Foreigners Registration Centre in Pabrade have received criticism from international organisations. The Red Cross and UNHCR consider the centre, which looks like a prison, to be unsuitable for accommodating persons who have escaped crisis situations in their country of origin. Both organisations are currently attempting to persuade the Lithuanian government that asylum seekers should be accommodated together with refugees and persons who have been granted subsidiary protection in the reception centre in Rukla.
Integration of Foreigners and Ethnic Minorities10
Lithuania considers itself a multiethnic state; Lithuanian citizens can profess membership to different ethnic groups. The census asks both for citizenship and ethnic affiliation. According to the 2001 census, 83.5% of the population are ethnic Lithuanians. Poles make up the largest of the minority groups with 6.7% of the total population, followed by Russians (6.3%), Belarusians (1.2%), and Ukrainians (0.7%). Jews, Germans, Tatars, Latvians, Roma, Armenians and “others” together made up 0.7% of the population. A total of 0.9% of the population did not state their ethnicity. Lithuanians generally have a positive relationship with their national minorities, even if discrimination cannot be excluded. Measures towards integration are aimed equally at foreign citizens and ethnic minorities.
Consisting of about 83.5% ethnic Lithuanians, Lithuania is the Baltic State in which the ethnic Baltic population forms the largest majority. In comparison, ethnic Estonians represent 68% of the population of Estonia, and ethnic Latvians 59% of the population of Latvia. In both countries the proportion of ethnic Russians is significantly higher. An anomaly occurs in eastern Lithuania, where Lithuanians only make up about half of the population, followed by the indigenous Poles who represent a third of the population there. In some regions near the Polish border, ethnic Poles are clearly in the majority. By contrast, while the Russian group is concentrated in certain areas of Lithuania, they do not represent the majority anywhere.
Unlike in the neighbouring Baltic States, the general population in Lithuania does not perceive the Russian minority as a threat. This is partly attributable to the fact that at the time of Soviet control comparatively few Russians and other Slavs were resettled in Lithuania. As a result, immediately before the regaining of independence, Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians made up just 12.3% of the population, whereas they were significantly more populous in Latvia (42.3%) and Estonia (35.2%). In addition, Russians were better integrated in Lithuania than was the case in Latvia and Estonia. According to the 1989 census, 37.8% of ethnic Russians had a good command of the Lithuanian language. In comparison, only 15.2% of ethnic Russians in Estonia and 22.4% of ethnic Russians in Latvia had a good command of those countries’ official languages. Nonetheless, the good cultural infrastructure of the ethnic Russians remaining in the country, with their Russian language newspapers and a wide variety of cultural activities and literature in their mother tongue, means that for many, learning the Lithuanian language is not a priority.
With regard to the Russian and Polish minorities in Lithuania, the government passed new regulations for education in schools in 2002. This established firmly for the first time that the language of a minority may also be the language of education and that lessons for children of national minorities may take place in their own language providing the Lithuanian language is taught parallel. Of the 2058 schools in Lithuania, 56 conduct lessons in Russian and a further 49 have introduced Russian-speaking classes. Accordingly, 5.9% of a total of 567,453 pupils are taught in Russian. By contrast, 83% of pupils are taught in Lithuanian. Other languages of instruction are Polish and Ukrainian. Those ethnic minorities which are smaller in number, such as the Armenians, Belarusians and Estonians, and which are also not locally concentrated, are offered the option of Sunday schools so as to consolidate their culture, language and identity.
According to absolute figures, the Roma, with 3,000 members, are one of the smaller ethnic minority groups. Despite their relatively small number, their integration has proven in some regards difficult, resulting among other things from the fact that they frequently have no command of the Lithuanian language. This creates other problems, such as a high number of school dropouts (a fifth of Roma children drop out of school before reaching school leaving age), unemployment, illiteracy and housing issues. Moreover, Roma in particular, and ethnic minorities generally, are still victims of discrimination. The International Helsinki Federation of Human Rights, for example, reports discrimination from the police, the authorities and from teachers at school. The predominant image of Roma among the Lithuanian public, reinforced by the media, is essentially negative. In 2001 the government adopted an integration programme tailored to the Roma minority, which in the same year brought about the establishment of a Roma Public Centre in Vilnius, and in subsequent years prioritised initiatives in the education sector. As a result, schoolbooks were published for Roma and, in 2002, pre-school education especially for Roma children was offered for the first time.
Judging by interethnic relationships of a personal nature (e.g. with friends, acquaintances, relatives), the integration of minorities in Lithuania may be regarded as somewhat advanced, whereas in the employment market, and particularly among smaller firms, essentially monoethnic structures may be observed.
Compared with Lithuanians there is a higher rate of unemployment among the ethnic minorities (2002: 18.5% v 12.8%). According to a Ministry of Social Security report, ethnic Poles and ethnic Russians in particular are more frequently affected by unemployment than the Lithuanian control group. That can be attributed to, among other things, a lack of language competence.
A glance at educational levels shows significant differences between the ethnic minorities. The Jewish minority has the highest level of education overall, followed by the Armenians, Ukrainians and the Russians. Poles and Roma represent the lowest number of people with higher qualifications (e.g. university degrees). As it is necessary to have a command of Lithuanian in order to enrol in university, ethnic minorities increasingly attend schools where lessons are conducted in Lithuanian.
Although minorities account for about 17% of the population, they made up 10% of members in the national parliament (Seimas) in 2000. In the higher anagement levels and at government level too, minorities tend to be less commonly represented. Where political representation is concerned there is the AWPL (Polish Election Action of Lithuania) and the Russian Union of Lithuania; between them they hold seven of the 51 seats in the Vilnius city council. A further 14 councillors are members of the “For Vilnius” group, which regards itself as representing Lithuanian Poles, among others. However, at present none of the three groups is represented in the Seimas.
Since 1990, Lithuania has been a destination and transit country as well as a country of origin for irregular migration. In 2005, 150 individuals were detained for either entering the country illegally or for staying in Lithuania without a valid residence permit.11 This figure is significantly below the number of detentions in previous years (2002: 329; 2003: 283; 2004: 254). The great majority of detainees in these years came from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova. Among Asian countries of origin in this period, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and Vietnam are well represented.
In the context of combating irregular migration, repatriation agreements have been signed with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Croatia, the Republic of Moldova, Romania and Armenia. Furthermore, in February 2002 higher fines were introduced for entering, crossing, remaining in and leaving the country without authorisation. Those who assist irregular residence by providing accommodation or a job may also be fined.
Among the Baltic States, Lithuania is and always has been the country most affected by human trafficking.12 The problem has worsened since the Baltic State joined the EU. This has been attributed to, firstly, a lack of electronic means of registration to assist in the search for missing persons, and secondly, the fact that only a small number of human traffickers were prosecuted.
According to Europol, approximately 1,200 Lithuanian women become victims of human trafficking each year. Victims are sexually exploited both in Lithuania and in Western European countries. For a long time Germany was the main country of destination for Lithuanian victims of human traffickers. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), however, the United Kingdom is now the country where most Lithuanian victims are picked up.
With a programme to research the causes of human trafficking in Lithuania, the government has taken action against this form of exploitation since 2002. The programme, in cooperation with European partners, aims to intensify the search for missing persons, to gather and publish relevant data, and to support an information campaign aimed specifically at women. It serves as a platform for many local projects and has developed successfully over the past years. In this context, victims of forced prostitution are offered rehabilitation measures, including psychological and medical care, temporary accommodation and material support. In the year 2005, a total of 13 local non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were given financial support to care for victims of forced prostitution and trafficking.
In the year 2003, Lithuania ratified the protocols to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the UN Convention against transnational organised crime. In the same year, the penal legislation for human trafficking was intensified. According to the US State Department, in 2005 there were 13 convictions with sentences ranging from fines to fourteen years’ imprisonment.
At the end of 2005, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, in cooperation with the British Embassy in Riga and the US State Department, adopted a two-year programme intended to improve the institutional and legal framework in the fight against irregular migration and human trafficking.
Developments in the area of migration are currently aimed primarily at securing the border. Lithuania has not yet settled completely into its new role as a border country of the EU. At present the primary concern is to implement the strategic plan for securing the border, which provides for the establishment of an effective infrastructure and sufficient border posts by 2010. Above all, stronger controls and effective securing of the external borders are regarded as the most important step in implementing the Schengen Agreement.
Improved cooperation with neighbouring countries to the east in matters of migration and asylum in association with EU neighbourhood programmes is also of high importance. One example of this is Lithuania’s participation in the TACIS programme by which the EU, among other things, wants to work more closely with neighbouring states in the areas of economics, institutional reforms and nuclear security. In this context, Lithuania and Austria are assisting Ukraine with reforms to its laws on migration and refugees.
Relations with the neighbouring Russian region of Kaliningrad represent a further important issue and future challenge. This region is separated from the rest of Russia by Lithuanian, Latvian and Polish territory, so that travellers from and to Kaliningrad by direct land route have to cross at least one of these EU countries. During negotiations for admission to the EU, this specific situation had led to tension between Russia, Lithuania and the EU, as Moscow in particular insisted on its people having visa-free access to Kaliningrad. Although it was possible to solve this matter by means of a compromise, the problems of securing the external border remain. Here Lithuania, like Poland and other border states, relies on the EU for technical and financial support. In this respect, in March 2006 the EU made an inspection visit to Lithuania and attested that the Kaliningrad transit programme was being implemented satisfactorily. The most important goal in this context remains the implementation of the Schengen Agreement to which Lithuania has already been admitted. To judge by recent developments, this can probably no longer be expected for the year 2007.
With regard to Lithuania‘s immigration policy, it can be assumed that it will become more rigid in the future. The newly devised application procedure for non-EU citizens is a first indication of this trend.
- According to the Department of Migration, it is not possible to gather exact data due to inadequate recording methods and the absence of political will.
- See also the interview with Almantas Gavenas, director of the Department of Migration in the Lithuanian Interior Ministry, in: Baltic Times, 04.05.2005 (456), p. 16
- See Brake, Kuoni and Simetaite (2005).
- See Traser (2005).
- Germany has extended the transitional period to 2009 and will probably maintain it until 2011.
- The term “workers from the EU8” refers to workers from the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.
- In the 1990s agreements on labour migration were concluded with the Russian Federation and Belarus.
- The term acquis communautaire refers to the entire body of laws of the European Communities and the European Union which candidate countries must adopt to become EU members.
- Here too an extension is possible under certain conditions; however, support from the Reception Centre and local authorities together is limited to a maximum of 60 months.
- The Lithuanian Department of Statistics uses the terms “nationality” and “ethnicity” synonymously. Following the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and Eurostat, the term “member of a national (ethnic) minority” is defined as follows: A member of an ethnic minority is a person who freely admits belonging to this group and endeavours to preserve the culture of this group (namely the language, observances, customs and national and ethnic identity).
- See Migration Department (2006).
- See International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (2006).
About the Author:
Benjamin Brake is studying sociology at the Otto Friedrich University in Bamberg. His main areas of interest are European integration and the sociology of migration and integration. Following a one-year stay in Lithuania, he is currently employed by the university’s Professor of Socio-Scientific European Studies.
References and Further Reading
- Brake, B., Kuoni, B. and I. Simetaite (2005): Potential of Lithuania _s Undergarduate Students to work or to study in Countries of the European Union. Working Paper, Vilnius University. Vilnius.
- Girleviciute, J. (2005): “No Threat of Immigration Flow to Lithuania.” In: Baltic Times. 04.05.2005 (456), p. 16.
- International Helsinki Federation of Human Rights (2006): ‘Lithuania.’ Human Rights in the OSCE Region: Europe, Central Asia and North America. Report 2006 (Events of 2005). Vienna.
- International Helsinki Federation of Human Rights (2003): ‘Lithuania.’ Human Rights in the OSCE Region: Europe, Central Asia and North America, Report 2003 (Events of 2002). Vienna.
- Kasatkina, N. and V. Beresneviciute (2004): Ethnic Structure, Inequality and Governance of the Public Sector in Lithuania. UNRISD-Working-Paper. Geneva.
- Migration Department (2006): Migration Yearbook 2005. Vilnius.
- Migration Department (2005): Migration Annual 2004. Vilnius.
- Ministry of Social Security and Labour (Ed.) (2003): Social Report of Lithuania. Vilnius.
- Sipavicieno, A.(1997): “Foreign labour in Lithuania: Immigration, employment and illegal work.” International Migration Papers. Informal Network on Foreign Labour in Central and Eastern Europe. Luxembourg.
- Traser, J. (2004): Who is afraid of EU enlargement? Report on the Free Movement of Workers in EU-25. European Citizen Action Service. Brussels.
- Tuchterhagen, R. (2005): Geschichte der Baltischen Länder. Munich.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (2006): 2005 Global Refugee Trends. Geneva.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (2006b): Statistical Yearbook 2004. Geneva.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (2005): Statistical Yearbook 2003. Geneva.
- Vildziunieme, A. (1999): Outlines of migration policy in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. In: Sociumas – Internet Magazine.
- Zaagman, R. (1999): Conflict Prevention in the Baltic States: The OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI). Flensburg.
- Zukauskiene, R.(2005): Active Civic Participation of Immigrants in Lithuania. Country Report prepared for the European research project POLITIS, University of Oldenburg.
- Department of Statistics, Government of the Republic of Lithuania:
- European Union – Summary of Legislation on Enlargement:
- German Embassy, Lithuania:
- Lithuanian Red Cross Society:
- Migration Department, Ministry of the Interior, Lithuania:
- Ministry of the Interior, Lithuania:
- Parliament of Lithuania (Seimas):
- Refugees Reception Centre, Rukla:
- The Baltic Times (English language Baltic weekly):